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3. S o lid wa s t e p e r c a p i t a ge ne r a t e d 0. 5 0. 3 0. 4 1 0. 75 0. 6 6 0. 45 0. 5 1 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1 B a n g l ades h Bh u t a n Ka bul C a m b odia La os P D R Ma ld ive s Mya n ma r Nep a l Tha i l a nd Kg/ d ay Figure 2 : Co m p arison of Solid Waste Generated per Capita in kg /day Due to the less industrialized and low incom e levels, the correspondi ng fig u r e is less than 1 kg/capita/d ay . The hi gh er level of waste gen e rati on in Mald ives is due to rapidl y de veloping construction industr y and t ourism industry of the cou n tr y . However, it is interesting to note that the per capita solid waste form ation in Cam bodia is as hi gh as its indu strializing neighbor T h ailand. 2.2 Waste composition A co m p arison of the current waste co m position in L DACs (Figure 3) shows th at about 70% or m o re (by weight) of the waste is co mbustible (i .e. organics and paper). However, the co m position differs depending on t h e econom ic leve l of countri es as well as other factors such as geographical location, energy resources, cli m ate, living standards and cultural habits, and t h e sources of waste that are considere d as MSW. The ratio of paper and pl astics including vo lum i nous m a terials such as food containers and wrapping m a terials is higher in so m e countries wher e tourism indu stry is e xpan d ing; h o wever organic waste is still the dom i nating factor i n all of th e countries bei ng studied. The high content of biodegradabl e m a tters results in hi gh waste dens ity (weight to volum e ratio) and hi gh m o isture content. These phy s ical characte r istics i ndicate the n eces sity of w a ste tre a t m en t prior to dis posal. As waste co m p rises a high organic cont ent and a lo w calorific value; biological treat ment such as co m posting a nd b i o-gasifi cation (i.e. a n aerobic dige s tion) are thu s m o re suitable. Incineration wou l d not be a go o d op tion due to extrem e m o isture content and l o w calorific value. In Bangla d esh, the lower percentage of plastic is due t o t h e restrictions of using thin pl astics. Cam b odia, with its slower urbanization growth, also has the sam e trend with B a ngladesh in term s of pa per and plastic wastes. Whereas, the low content of the orga nic material in Laos PDR is mainly due to the agr i cultural lifesty le where a large sc ale of the food waste is used as an animal feed. On the other hand, agricultural countries like My anm a r an d Nepal, high pe rcentage of their waste is organic, which is contrary to t h e waste in Maldives. In Maldives, with its rapidly developi n g construction industr y , which is contributing significantly t o t h e com positi on of their waste, has also lower organ i c waste co m position. This is similar to the situation i n Kabul, Afg h ani s tan where 50-60% of the i r waste content com e s fro m construction debris or white waste. 3

7. 3.2.2 Compos ting Com posting is the second preferred m e thod of s o lid waste disposal in L DACs, m a inly due to the high percentage of organic m a teri al in the waste com position. There are som e sm all-scale com posting plants in D h aka, wh ich has shown m o re success such as windrow com posting, however composting in bigger scale is not that popular in the whole region. The m a in reason why centralized com p osting p l ants are not functioning effectively includes (a) high oper a ting and m a intenance co sts com p are d to open landf illing ; ( b ) highe r c o st of com post than commercial f e rtilizer s ; (c ) incom p le te separation of m a terials such as plastics and glass, m a king the compost poor for agricultural application. 3.2.3 Recycli ng and recovery Recycling is generally carried out by the inform al sector. There are n o policies that prom ote recycling or resource conservation, and the m unicipali ties do not have the expertise to launch the recycling activities. In several places, such as Kathm a ndu, m o re of the waste could be recycled if th ere was better infras tru c ture f o r co llec ting r e c y clables. However, collection of recyclable waste is done in several steps su ch as door to door collection, collection at secondary and prim ary transfer stati ons and even in the disp osal sites. D u e to the f a ulty collec tion sys t em s and the lo w quality of scrap, the r ecycling ra te is low des p ite of high num ber of waste pickers working. In Cam bodi a, even though waste separation at the source is not practice, still som e valuable waste is sorted out prior to collection and som e done during the transportation. About 12% of the total wastes are collected from the household and from commercial areas by the inform al groups for recycling. The m a in it em s are soft and hard plastics, gl ass, steel, paper, cardb o ard, alum inium and alloys etc. Som e item s are also expo rted to Vietn a m and Thailand for recycling. In Bhutan, around 20% of th e collected wastes are sent for recycling. Whereas, most of the recyclab le wastes collected in Nepal and Bhutan ar e sent to India, due to insufficient recycling f actories in the countries. 3.2.4 Incineration Due to the h i gh cap ita l, operation an d m a intena nce cos t s inv o lved f o r th e ins t alla tio n of incineration plants, incinerati on is not popular as a waste dis posal system in the countries being studies. In addition to these, the m a jor portion of the MSW is or ganic with relatively high m o isture conten t which le ads toa low calor if ic value. In Af ghanis t an, due to inadequa te incin e ra tio n f acilities at Kabul h o spita l, m e dical wastes are improperly d i sposed off haphazard l y along the city streets th ereby puttin g people at risk of exposure to bacteria, viruses, and tox i c m a terials. In Bangladesh, som e NGOs are operating incineration plant, especially for handl ing clinical and hospita l wastes, yet still the system is in adequate an d inefficient. 4. LEGAL, SOCIAL AND FINA NCI A L ISSUES Due to the sim ilarity in econom ical and infrastructural developm ent, all the LDACs a r e f acing m o re or le ss s i m ilar lega l, socia l and f i nancia l p r oblem s in term s of solid was t e m a nage m e nt . Considering the necessity of environmental issues in the country’s developm ent, governm e nt and m u nicipalities are working hard to extend environm ental legislation. 7

4. Since suitabl e treatm ent m e thods are different for different waste com position s , th us differ am ong cities with differe nt levels of econom i c developm ent. However, other factors have to be taken into account while choosi ng the most appropriate waste treatm e nt m e thod. MS W Com p os ition 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ban g l ad es h B hut a n C a m bodi a Lao s P D R Mald iv es My a n m a r Ne pa l P e r cen tag e O r ga nic W a s t e Pa p e r & Pl a s t i c Com m e r c ial W a s t e Ot h e rs Figure 3 : C o m p arison of organic and inorganic com ponents of MSW 3. SOLID WASTE MANAGEME N T Nowadays, Capital cities of LDACs ar e challenged by urbanization and industrialization trends, populati o n increase and consequent rise in waste. Poor governm e nt policy and response, lack of political will, lack of ap propriate econom i c and hum a n resources, and weak local institutions result in poor waste m a nage m e nt (especially in large cities). Thes e cities th erefore face m a jor p r oblem s relating to p ublic h ealth and environ m ental pollution. 3.1 Collectio n and transport Generally speaking, significant am ount of the so lid waste generated in urban centers are uncollected and either b u rned in the streets or end up in ri v e rs, creeks, m a rshy areas and em pty lots. W a ste tha t is collec ted is m a inly disposed off in open dum p- sites, m a ny of whic h are not properly operated and m a in tained, thereby posing a serious threat to public health [2]. The collection rate varies from city to city an d collection f acilities ar e eithe r inade quate o r inefficient in alm o st all of th e cities [3]. Figure 4 describe s the collection efficiency of various capital cities in Asia . Bangkok, being one of the fastes t developing cities in Asia, exhibited the highest collection efficien cy followed by Phnom Penh and Thim phu. 4

10. Even though the overall m a nage m e nt of m uni c i pal solid waste in the countries being studied is not adequate, there are also so m e successful projects m a inly run by NGOs and CBOs. In Bangladesh, Waste Conc ern one of the NGO, initiated the first pilot project in 1995 with the help of UNDP and Lions Club. They started the public awar eness cam paign for the separation of waste at source and minim a l pa yment schem e for door-to-door collection. Due to the high dem a nd of good quality com post, Wa ste Concern started to collect the dom estic organic waste (free from toxic and clinical wastes) from houses for composting. Collection rose to 2 ton s of solid w a ste p e r day with the help of m odified ricksh aw vans. The num b er of household participation also started increas ing, which are paying about T K 15 per m o nth. In Laos PDR, a non-governm e nt organization introduced N ongnak village solid was t e collection project. Th e p r oject pr oposed to collect and dispose of m unicipal solid waste from the local market and p r om ote hygiene practice. This project covered 11 villages with a population of 12000 people. This project tried to upgrade the urban environm ent and reduce the environ m ental health hazards caused by garb age accum u lation and lack of proper disposal system s. Implem enting this proj ect allev i ate in sanitation sta ndards for the urban poor. The project had enabled the collec tion and transport of a large am ount of solid waste to the dum p site away from the village. After the establishm ent of the project in March 2003, the urban enviro nm ental qua lity h a d im proved a lo t. The W o m e n' s Environm ent Preservation Comm ittee (W EPCO) in Lalitpur, Nepal started a pilot project supported by DANIDA with waste reduction as its m a in objective. The group is working for source segregation an d com posting. It is already servicing 500 households with prim ary collecti on. The sweepers sort out the recyclables and sell them to waste traders while the organic waste is co m p osted. The organization sells 1200-1500 kg of com post m o nthly. This m e thod had picked up ex tensively in Nepal and had set an exam pl e for the other LDACs that produce m a jo r fractions of organic waste [7]. 7. CON C LUS I ON The m a nagem e nt of municipa l solid wastes in LDACs has still m a ny problem s. The current regulation system is not perfect, an d the existing m a nage ment system and the colle ction f acilities do n o t f it th e p r esent require m e nts at all. M uni ci pa l sol i d wa st e s a r e st il l collected without s e paration at the source, treatm e nt facili ties are lim ited and m o stly the collected wastes are also du m p ed haphazardl y in open areas. Governm e nt , NGOs, CBOs and private sectors are working hard in this fiel d but still the action is not enough. The m a i n m a nage m e nt strategies to rem e dy this shoul d include am endment of current laws and regulations, im prove current m a nagem e nt syst em s and introduce class i fied collections. The ef f ective im plem entatio n of these s t rateg i es will help ex tens ively to solv e the env i ro nm ental pollution problem s caused by m uni cipal solid wastes in LDACs. It is also im portan t to observe that there are possibilities for re search im ple m entation, collaboration between developing and LDACs (south to south), which have sim ilar clim atic and solid waste characteristics. 8. REFER E NC ES • Arnold van de Klundert and Justine Anschiitz, The sustainability of alliances between stakeholders in waste m a nagem e nt. Working paper for UWEP/CWG, 30 May 2000 – Draft. Available online: [ http://www.gdrc.org/uem / waste/IS WM.pdf ] 10

5. C o l l ec t i o n E f f i c i en c y 50 72 23 80 25 40 55 70 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0 Dha k a Th i m p h u Ka bu l P hno m Pe n h V i e n tia n e Ma l e ' Y a ng on Ka t m a n d u B A NG KOK P e r cen t a g e Figure 4 : C o m p arison o f Collection Efficiencies MSW m a na gem e nt services accou n t for a h i gh percen tage of m uni cipal budgets. Expenditure on MSW m a nage m e nt can reach up to 40% of the m unicipal operatin g budget and, 70%-90% of this is spent on collection. For instance, Kathm a ndu spends 38% of the municipal budget on MSW m a nage m e nt; 93% of this is spent on sweeping, collection, transfer and transport. In Phno m Penh, part of the collection se rvice is perfor m e d by a private com p any, which dem a nds the waste collection fee from households and di rectly deducted in their ele c tr ic ity bill. Since the econom i c and clim atic con d itions of L DACs are sim ilar, the sy stem provided for the MS W m a nagem e nt is somehow sim ilar in m o st of the countr ies. The door to door collection s e rvices m a y not be as efficient as th e services in m o st of t h e urban areas of the developed countries, but it is also available in LDACs. Ot hers are cu rbside collection and communal site collectio n. Mostly th e wastes are collected from the curb site. The frequency of collection differs fro m place to p l ace; at the core area s and comm ercial areas collection is done daily while in the low population density ar eas and residential areas collection is done in every 2 or 3 days interval. The typical collection fleets us ed are trucks an d pushcarts. Usually in sm aller cities pushcarts, rickshaws are m o st popular for collection, while in larger cities trucks (Fig. 5) with capacity of 7 – 21 m 3 are used. There are hardly any tran sfer st ations, w h ich can co llect and handle the waste m o re scientifically. There is a wide practice of using the streets as a secondary transfer st ation (Fig. 5). In Kathm a ndu, constr uction of well equipped transfer station is in progress which m a y carry on its wo rk after the next few m o nths. Table 1 shows the volum e of waste generated a nd collected in Kabul, Afghanista n. I t is eviden t th at only about 25% of the to tal waste generated in Kabul is bei ng collected while a greater portion of it is not. In addition, Figure 5 also shows that 6-8 persons are assigned for each truck whereas in Bangkok, Thailand only 2 pers ons are responsible per truck. 5

9. sustainability of the waste m a nagem e nt system, such as changes in behavior and sharing of financial responsibilities. On the other hand, igno ring certain activi ties or groups will result in decreased s u stain a bility of th e system , for example in the fo r m of negative public health effects or in creas ed unemploym ent [4]. 5.1 Com m unity based org a niz a tions (CBOs) Unless and until the wh ole comm unity do no t in volve in solid waste m a nagem e nt with respect to source segregation, r ecovery of reusable and recycl able m a terials and storage of waste prior to collectio n, the m a nagem e nt wo n’t be su cces sful. So, the community based organiz a tion is an ess e ntia l elem ent in en su ring the ef fectivenes s of the solid waste m a nage m e nt project in LDACs and increasing th e like lihoo d of its sust ainability. One such exam ple of a successful CB scheme is the Co mmunity based pilot project in solid waste m a nage m e nt in Khulna city in Bangladesh [5]. 5.2 Private s ector participation Private sec t or has p l ay ed an im portan t ro le in MSW M in som e of the coun tr ies m e ntioned in the paper. Speciall y, in the cap ital city of Nep a l private sector is participating more in door-to-door collection, street sweeping and waste transfer. Due to the involvem ent of the private sector, collecting garbage is found to be m o re efficient and in addition to this burden on Kathm a ndu Municipal Corporation (KMC ) is reduced both in financial and in term s of hum a n resources. Approxim a tely 50% of the people surveyed replied that services provided by the private sector were more effective. Therefore, KMC is gearing tow a rds th e involvem e nt of the private sector in all aspects of solid waste m a nage m e nt . 5.3 Non-g ove rnm e ntal organiz ations (NGOs) The NGOs play a vital role in developi ng awareness on the environm ental im p acts associated with the m a nagem e nt of wast es. One such exam ple of non-governm e ntal organization is “Zero Waste Nepal” in Nepal. Ze ro W a ste Nepal is cu rren tly working towards community based solid waste m a nagem e nt through application of Zero W a ste Concept com p rising of the following principles: • Don’t take hom e unwanted m a terials • Produce clean waste through segr egation of waste at source • Sending back the W a ste to its source of generation • Disposal ban of waste in public place or nature • Encouraging Co mmunity participation through NGO and Private Sector. Zero W a ste Nepal is trying to develop new a ttitude and behaviour of the people towards handling waste and converting th e ex isting “Thro w Away” culture to “Zero W a ste” cu lture. It is taking the initiativ es towards Solid W a ste Managem e nt through developm ent of partnership with local clubs for execution at grass root level th rough interaction with neighbourhood, ward level, local NGO, internatio nal developm ent agencies and Rotary clubs f o r resource mobiliza tion [ 6 ] . In Bangladesh, NGOs like W a ste Concern, Pr odipan, Environ m ental and Geographic Inform ation System s (EGIS) are com i ng up w ith stra teg i es to m a nage the solid waste properly. P r odipan is w o rking from collection of solid waste to com pos ting and runs a sm all scale incin e ration p l ant. 6. SUCCESS S T OR IES 9

2. NGO’s & CBO’s involvement Waste Separatio n Waste Tra n sport Figure 1 : Integrated Solid Waste Manag e m e nt 2. SOLI D WA STE CHAR ACTE R I Z A T ION Although citi es of LDACs have a lo wer rate of waste generation co m p ared to the cities of the developing c ountries, their quantum of waste is high owing to their higher levels of populatio n density. The tropical cli m ates with a h i gh degree of rainfall and hum idity aggravate the problem o f solid waste disposal. As cities are beco ming m o re u r banized, their waste co m p osition also c h anges. The substantial increase i n the use of paper and pa ckaging is probably the most obvious change. Other significant changes are due to the higher pr opor tion of plastics and cons umer products and their related packa g ing m a t e rial in the solid waste. The n e gative side of greater aff l uence is that it brings greater volume of wastes, making it m o re expensive for management. 2.1 Sol i d waste generation Accurat e information on waste gene ration is necessary to monitor existing m a nage ment sy stems and to make reg u lator y , fina ncial and in stitutional dec i sions. Howe ver, reliable data are difficult to obtain in less developed and developi ng cities. Solid waste gener a tion is based on the econom ic developm ent, density of p o p u lation, size of the ur ban habitation an d consum ption rate of co mmercial goods. F i gur e 2 shows th e co m p arison of solid waste generated per capita (kg/da y ) in different LDCs and devel oping coun tri es. It is observed that t h e g e neration rate ranges from 0.3 t o 1 . 0 kg/capita/day. ISWM Waste Generation Waste Composition & Characte ristics Waste Collection Waste Reduction, Reuse & Re cycle Legal, Economic, Financial & Health Aspe cts Waste Treatment & Disposal Public & Comm unity Pi i i 2

1. Solid Waste Management in Least Developed Asian Countries – A Comparative Analysis Ulrich Glawe 1 , C. Visvanathan 2 , M. Alam gir 3 1 Geotechnical and Geoenv ironm ental Engineering Pr ogram , Asian Institute of Technology , P.O. Box 4, Khlong Luang, Pathum thani 12120, T h ailand, [email protected] ac.th 2 Environm ental Engineering and Mana gem e nt Program , Asian Institute of Technology , P.O. Box 4, Khlong Luang, Pathum thani 12120, T h ailand, [email protected] 3 Department of Civil En gi neering, Khul na Univ ersity of Engi neering & Technol og y , Kh ulna, Bangladesh Abstract: Presently, the World Bank has designated 50 countries as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), out of which 8 countries are from Asia - Afghanista n , B angla d esh, Bhutan , Cambodia, La os PDR, Maldives, Myanmar and Nepal. This paper high lights the present stat us of municipal solid waste management in these LDACs incl uding leg a l, social and fin a n cial issues. It is also envisaged to expose on t h e solid waste generation rate, its c o mposition, collection systems, and areas of responsibilities (public / private sector) , transfer and treatment sit es and waste disposal systems used . Furthermore, the necessit y of th e i n volvement of NGOs, CBOs and private sector for the better understanding and sust ainability of t h e related projects is illustrated. Finally, s o me successf ul project stories are discussed which may be good examples fo r other least developed countries wit h similar climatic condition a nd was t e composition. 1. INTRODUCTION World Bank has categorized so m e countries as Le ast Developed Countries (LDCs) in terms of the following criteria: low- income, human resour ce weakness, and econom i c vulnerability. At present, 50 countries are designated as LDCs, out of whic h 8 countries are fro m Asia - Afg h anistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos PDR, Mald ives, My anm a r & Nepal. These countries have a num ber of p r iorit y issues pertaining t o the co untr y ’s develop m ent. Am ong th ose, managem e nt o f m unicipal solid waste is one of the priori ty urban issue s . Co mm on problems for MSW managem e nt in L DACs incl ude instituti onal deficiencies, inadequate legislation and resource constraints. Long and short term plans are inadequate due to capital and hum an r esource li m i t a tions. There is a need for financing equipm ent for MSW management, training specialists and capacity b u ild i n g. The gover n ments have form ulated policies fo r environm ental protection, but the y were onl y im plemen ted in the national capital cities. In rural areas, open dum ping is still considered the m o st popular m e thod of solid waste disposal. Thus, the prevailing issues and conditions in these countries d e m a nd extensive studies and resear ches on solid waste managem e nt to improve signifi cantly the local environment for more sustainab l e living conditions. In urban soli d waste man a gem e nt plan ning, m a ny of these LDACs adopt a seg m ental ad hoc approach. However, it is i m portant to practice inte g r ated solid w aste manage ment approac h such as: Incorporation of m o re environm ental and econom ic friendl y conc epts of source separation; recovery of waste; legi tim i zation of the inform al s y stem s; partial privatization and public participation. 1

11. • Field note: Community Based Pilot Project on Solid W a ste Managem e nt in Khulna City: General Projec t Descrip tion. Available online : [ http://www.wsp.org/public ations/sa_community_khulna.pdf ] • M. R. Mendes & H. Imura Eastern prospec t: Municip a l s o lid waste m a nagem e nt in Asian cities. Waste Management World Magazine . July- Aug 2004. • Nyachhyon B.L. Zero Waste Approach-A New culture for A Ne w Century, WAST E 2004 conference , 2004 • Solid W a ste Disposal in Asian C ities UMP Asia News. Summ er 1999. • Towards an Urban waste m a nagem e nt strategy. Available online: [ http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/focus/urban-waste.doc ] • UNEP, Afghanistan - P o st Conflic t Environm ental Assessment 2003 • UNEP, Bangladesh – State of the Environm ent 2001 • UNEP, Bhutan – State of the Environm ent 2001 • UNEP, Laos PDR – State of the Environm ent 2001 • UNEP, Maldives – State of the Environm ent 2002 • UNEP, Nepal – State of the Environm ent 2001 11

6. Table 1 : Vol u m e of Waste Generated an d Collected in Kabul, Afg h anistan G e n e r a t e d C o l l e c t e d U n c o l l e c t e d Volume ( m 3 ) 1 5 4 0 3 6 0 1 1 8 0 Weight (tons) 1080 250 830 Figure 5 : Afghanistan Waste Collection Scenario ( A p pr o x 6- 8 pers o n s per t r uck ) 3.2 Processing and Disposal of MSW 3.2.1 Landfill In m o st of the cities of LD ACs, landfill is the m o st preferred m e thod for the final disposal of solid waste. Most of these sites practice open du m p ing, with no regards to the requir e m e nts f o r a sanitary landf ill. However , governm e nt and m unicipalities are already working to develop th e sanitary lan d f ill sites in f e w urban areas. Sinc e land is f a st b ecom i ng scarc e within city lim its, new sanita r y landf ill ar e of ten too distan tly loc a ted com p ared to the open dum p s ites within municipal lim its, ther eby m a king the longer collection and delivery tim e,, which is ineffectively costly. In m a ny islands of Maldives organic wastes are com posted at hom e backyards and non- biodegradable waste ( su ch as plastics) is dum ped near the b each or buried in a few islands. Burning of com bustible waste at designa ted a r eas is also wid e ly prac tic e. In Nepal, af ter the clo s ing of Gokarna landf ill s ite in 1994, the collected waste is just haphazard l y dum ped along the Bagm ati river banks. In the case of Bangladesh, m o st of the open dum p s are in open land of low lying areas , which usually cause problem during heavy rainfalls and flooding. Even being the typically used m e thod for final dis posal in most LDACs, the overall condition of landfill is s t ill unsatisfactory. 6

8. Co-operatio n from the citizens is a vital as pect in m a naging solid wastes of a city. Habits and attitudes of inhabitants of a city larg ely affect waste m a nagem e nt system. Hence, social aspect can not b e separated from th e overall waste m a nagem e nt system. Public awareness a nd public participa tion is a m a jor st ep in ef f ective im plem entation of the solid waste m a nagem e nt system . Therefore, the gove rnm e nt of LDACs are giving im portance for environm ental education from schools to de velop the awareness of the general public. Financial issues are the m a in problem for th e least developed countri es to carry out any kind of developm ent program s. In most of the LDACs donors such as United Nations Developm en t Programme (UNDP), ADB, JICA, Ger m an go vernm e nt are helping the local governm e nts for establishing an environm enta lly sustainable solid waste collection and disposal system . Table 2: Responsible Organization & Current situation of MSW in study countries C o u n t r y R e s p o n s i b l e Organiz ation Current situ ation Current acti on Afghanistan Ministry of Ir rigation, Water resources and Environm ent and Afghan Assistance Coordinatio n Authorit y No environm ental legislation Start to develop legislation since 2001 Bangladesh Ministry of E nvironm ent and Forest No separate p o licy or handing rules for solid waste Preparing a com p rehensiv e solid waste m a nagem e nt handling rule s Bhutan Municipalities Fails to enforce the law enforcing the law Cam bodia Ministry of E nvironm ent n/a Im proving t h e waste management facilities and educating peo p le Laos PDR Ministry of Co m m unications, Transport, Po st and Construction n / a E s t a b l i s h i n g a w a s t e m a nagem e nt sy stem Maldives Ministry of H o me Affair n / a n / a My anm a r Pollution Control and Cleansing Departm e nt The regulatio n is outm oded No action Nepal Municipalities Fails to im plement national polic y Im proving t h e waste management facilities and educating peo p le n/a - not available 5. STAKEHOLDERS AN D PUBLI C PARTI C IPA T ION To achieve sustainability in waste m a nage m e nt , it is im portan t to loo k at the ro les, interests an d power structures prevalen t in waste m a nage m e nt. Experience in several countries has shown that cooperation and co ordination between the different stakeholder groups like city council, provi ncial governm e nt, service user s, NGOS, CBOS, the private sector (form a l and infor m al), and donor ag encies, will u l tim a tely lead to increase 8


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