10. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 7 At first, separated discharge activity should be carried out at a place as much upstream as possible (household, commercial area etc.). It is the most ef fective method to get single material, which is suitable for recycle and less extraneous waste. On the other hand, separation activity in TP A should be avoided for the following reasons : 1) It decreases the value of waste. 2) It is dangerous and unhygienic for waste pickers. 3) It makes dif ficult the proper operation and maintenance of TP A. Points of separated discharge are to change of behavior , to provide the best practical method, and to keep sustainability of an ef fort for separate discharge. City/district government should inform inhabitants about the necessity of separated discharge concretely as the way to keep the city clean and healthy referring to the actual waste management problem and proper analysis. Important thing is to share the information about the ef fect of waste separation activity among the people who participate in separated discharge of waste; the information includes reducing city/district government burden in relation with waste management and giving more benefit to the people for better livelihoods. City/district government also should announce kind and method of separated discharge waste plainly . Then, the city/district government defines the kinds and methods based on the result of proper analysis; that is, what kind of waste is suitable to separate, what have been already carried out for the separated discharge by a part of inhabitants and the like. Ci ty /d is tr ic t g ov er nm en t s ho ul d d ef in e t he fe as ib le ki nd an d t he me th od by co ns id er in g th e ab ov e ef fe ct , bu rd en , ex pe ns es , ac tu al ci rc um st an ce s in th e ar ea , lo ca l wi sd om an d th e li ke ; an d th en , it sh ou ld de ci de th e ki nd of w as te t o be se pa ra te d as re co mm en da ti on f or i mp le me nt at io n in th e ci ty . It is ef fective to conduct education of public in relation with the necessity of separated discharge activity through the education in the school, public campaign, media event, and the like.
17. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 14 should be the main service that would give direction to the public service with criteria, which can be evaluated. Like as other public services, this recycling program should be stable, consistent, predictable, equitable, ef ficient, auditable, and environmental friendly .
3. P r e f a c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1 General ...............................................................................1 2 Present Condition of Recycle Networking .....................................2 2.1. R e c y c l e R o u t e ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ... ... . . . . 2 2.2. C o m p o s t i n g ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . 4 2.3. Recycling Assessment on Environmental Impact................5 3 Practicable Separate Discharge and Separate Collection..................6 3.1. Point of Separate Discharge ........................................6 3.2. Separate Discharge Method .......................................8 3.3. Security Demand on Compost Fertilizer .......................10 3.4. Point of Separate Collection .....................................10 3.5. Separate Collection Method .......................................1 1 4 Prevent Environmental Pollution in Recycle Processing ................12 5 Fixed Recycle System ..........................................................13 6 P o s t s c r i p t ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 Practical Guidance for W aste Separation Table of Content ii
12. mind that, basically , suitable organic wastes for compost are limited, although discharge rate of organic waste occupies high percentage in many cities. Besides being processed as compost, the said waste could be processed in a feed mill or in a methanation factory . Model 3 : Separating one or more inorganic wastes and food organic wastes at household or commercial place. This model is made by providing the containers to collect one or more inorganic wastes and food organic wastes; for instance, inorganic wastes can be separated in one container and food organic wastes for another container . For the advance level, inorganic wastes (plastic, paper , ferrous metal, etc.) can be separated in plural containers and food organic wastes for another container . It is rather complicated, but the important thing is how we could keep consistency to separate the wastes as life style. Model 4 : Separating one or more inorganic wastes at TPS (or other public places for separation). This model should prepare the container(s) to collect one (or more) inorganic waste(s) in TPS. For instance, inorganic wastes are separated in 1 container at household; then as the second step, the city/ district government separates the said inorganic wastes one more time (into PET bottle, other plastics, glass bottles, etc.). In the case that this model is used, we should prepare its precondition such as facilities to collect separated inorganic wastes from household or commercial areas. The aim of it is that this model needs special conditions to keep conditions of the separated inorganic waste from source so that they would not contaminated by other kinds of wastes during transportation to TPS. In the process to determine the model to be selected, the best practical method should be developed; which has been tried in some cities and/or in the cities that consider the ef fective waste management system together with burden of household, burden of collection, eco-friendly aspect, stability aspect. As the results, the city coul d start the practical waste recycle activity rationally from the part that is easy to tackle. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 9 9
4. 1. General The current status of solid waste management in many cities is coming to the surface as uncontrollable problem, and it increases and diversifies to follow increase of the population and economic growth. Increase of uncontrollable waste emerges as logical consequence of human and industrial activity; where it causes many problems in urban environment such as, aesthetics of a city , human health; moreover it brings about disaster (methane gas explosion, land slide, air pollution by open burning, etc). On the other hand, solid waste management, which is conducted by the solid waste management agency , just focuses to collect and deliver the waste to Final Disposal Site (TP A) for final disposal without treatment. Most of TP A has an environmental problem. For example, mostly , it is not layered completely with water resistant material like a geo-textile, no measures are taken for treatment of leachate, open dumping and open burning are still allowed and the like. As the result, it may cause many problem such as absorption of leachate into the ground water , bad smell, air pollution and the like. T o reduce emerging waste, now is the time to promote separated discharge and separated collection in the expectation to decrease waste problem as mentioned above. It is also the time to decrease waste dumping into the river , lake and others water areas, to decrease improper open burning of waste, to decrease waste picker in the isolated area of the final disposal site and to restrain consumption of natural resources. When we wish starting implementation of separated discharge and separated collection of waste, it is important to confirm state of the present recycle system; and we have to predict how it works when the treatment quantity increases. In the first instance, it is important to conduct needs assessment in this case. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 1
15. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 12 4. Prevent Environmental Pollution in Recycle Process As discussed in the Assessment on Impact of Recycling to Environment before, we could find out the fact that the recycling process could result in the waste e.g. gaseous emission, solid waste, and liquid waste. In relation to prevent environment from pollution in the recycling process, it is directed to prevent its exposure to pollution and to avoid illness and diseases suf fered by inhabitants, and to keep sustainability of environment. T o prevent environment from pollution by recycle process, the points to be kept in mind are as follow: Firs t, city /dis tric t gove rnme nt shou ld gras p the recy clin g flow when it plan s and cond ucts sepa rate d disc harg e and sepa rate d coll ecti on acti vity ; it shou ld secu re or impr ove an envi ronm enta l frie ndly recy clin g flow . Seco nd, to secu re an envi ronm ent frie ndly recy clin g flow , the rele vant loca l gove rnme nt shou ld enfo rce the rela ted envi ronm enta l regu lati ons (reg ulat ion for prev enti ng wate r poll utio n, air poll utio n, and impl emen ting of EIA etc. ). Then , the loca l gove rnme nt shou ld cont rol and coop erat e with a prop er recy cle acti vity . Me an wh il e, fo r pr op er ap pl ic at io n, mu lt i st ak eh ol de rs , es pe ci al ly re le va nt ke y se ct io ns in th e lo ca l go ve rn me nt , pr iv at e se ct or an d ci vi l so ci et y sh ou ld be in vo lv ed th ro ug h pa rt ne rs hi p an d de ve lo pm en t of mu lt is ec to ra l or ga ni za ti on . Model 3 : Separating one or more inorganic wastes at TPS. This model develops separated collection in TPS by providing dif ferent containers to collect inorganic wastes. T otal containers are kept in place continuously for separated discharge of waste. Besides, it needs the investment (cost) on providing containers; also need to conduct socialization program to collectors to avoid scattering the remained wastes in the surrounding of container after they took the valuable wastes.
2. I am gladly welcome publication of this book, 'Practical Guidance on Separation of W astes'. I would like to express my high gratitude to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) that has greatly supported the compilation and publication of this book. The publication of this book achieves its right momentum in coincidence with endorsement of Undang-Undang No. 18/2008 concerning W aste Management. One of the important things provided in the said Undang- Undang on the W aste Management is that all wastes must be separated. Separation or sorting of wastes is one of the most dif ficult things in the waste management flow , because this relates to the human behavior that surely needs long and big ef forts to develop. The guidance in this book is hopefully could become a basis for waste separation ef fort in an urban integrated waste management program. Hopefully the guidance is useful, especially for waste management ef forts in many cities in Indonesia. Jakarta, August 2008 Deputy Minister for Environmental Pollution Control Mohd. Gempur Adnan State Ministry of Environment Preface Practical Guidance for W aste Separation i
14. (2) City/district government should manage or keep to watch the collection process. There were some cases that waste was discharged separately by people in the dif ferent container or the plastic bag; but waste collector remixed it in one trolley or in one truck. Such action breaks the reliability of the recycle system and loses the motivation of people who conduct separated discharge of the waste. It is important to secure certain separated collection system with each separated discharged of waste. 3.5. Separated Collection Method For reference, this chapter shows some models regarding methods on separated collection as follow: Model 1: Decreasing number of time of collection per one kind of waste. It means that how we could set up the date and the time for loading and pick up to transfer the separated collection of waste to treatment/recycling places, so that the separated collection of waste could be transferred timely . The date and the time for loading and pick up should be scheduled as integrated transport management so that it could achieve an ef fective and ef ficient loading time with possibility to be reviewed periodically so as to reach more ef ficient (reducing collection time) collection in a certain period of time. Regarding to minimize the excessive cost and burden; of course, it is possible to set up dif ferent day for collection in each area. City/district government needs to inform clearly to inhabitants when and what kind of wastes would be collected. Model 2 : Involving a waste picker and the recycle network for i n o r g a n i c w a s t e c o l l e c t i o n . T h i s m o d e l e n c o u r a g e s involvement of an inorganic waste picker and their recycle n e t w o r k t o c o l l e c t s e p a r a t e d i n o r g a n i c w a s t e f r o m household or commercial areas in a certain fixed time. Setting up the certain or fixed time is important to create the recycling industry as a stable process. But attention must be paid to the fact that almost of the waste pickers just collects the good/valuable wastes and leave inferior or less value w a s t e s . T h e c i t y / d i s t r i c t g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d s e c u r e en vi ro nm en ta l fr ie nd ly re cy cl in g fl ow , wh ic h wi ll be mentioned later . Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 1 1
16. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 13 5. Fixed Recycle System Generally , commercial transaction of recycled waste goods is not stable, because demand for the recycled-goods is basically not so high and the demand changes easily . After city/district government starts the waste recycling activity , if the waste network collapses, it is dif ficult for the government to secure alternative treatment system for the emergent waste. T o avoid such matter , city/district government should forecast and confirm the long-term demand for recycled-goods when it selects the method on separated discharge and separated collection of waste. On the other hand, it is also important to secure making marketable recycle- goods as recycle system. One of the ef fective method for city/district government is to start the activities by small size at first, then, they could develop large scale trial (pilot project) while minimizing the problems caused by mistakes in planning stage. City/district government should set up a plan for recycling of wastes as a part of integrated waste management, including consideration for a proper waste treatment especially for certain wastes, which are dif ficult to be recycled. In the integrated waste management; the city/district government should develop method for the separated discharge and separated collection of waste by providing a simple infrastructure, which is needed for separated collection and separated loading of waste as the way of separation that would be established as a method. 6. Postscript For constructing stable, sound material cycle society , it is important to create partnership and to exchange information ef fectively among the government, the private sector , academia, NGOs and consumers. For example, the private sector should endeavor to reduce the amount of waste by recycling or re-use of waste. The private sector should not develop products, which are dif ficult to handle or process when they are discarded. In addition, the private sector should cooperate with the central government and local governments in their 3R activities. Basic principles that are referred to in the plan for this recycling program
7. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 4 Jabotabek (Jakarta and its surrounding areas) and Surabaya play important role in the waste recycle network; because majority of the recycle factories exists in these areas. Recycle factory is meant not just a factory that produces finished product but also produces half- finished product (raw material) such as scrap paper , plastic mould/pellet, scrap iron and the like. So, besides export of the finished product, these areas export to abroad half-finished product and raw materials, too; even though majority of the recycled raw materials seem to be used in the domestic market. Note: This information is based on fact-finding survey to operators concerned with waste recycle. 2.2 Composting In relation with organic waste recycling method, it is divided in 3 processing; first, composting, second, methanation and third, the animal feed. Meanwhile, for composting, various methods are taken by community in many cities, such as an aerobic method, worm method (produce compost with the worm that helps to accelerate bio- degradation process), and conventional method. Although they can produce compost, it is rather for themselves than selling the compost for gardening or agriculture. Box 2 : Composting at household: First of all, it needs to separate the raw garbage. There is a method to bury a small part of a metal drum like barrel with both top and bottom ends open into the soil; then, put the raw garbage in it and cover the top of it with soil and repeat the processes. After the raw garbage is put into the container , cover the top of it with a lid. In this case, a place where it sinks under water in the rainy season must be avoided. For composting, it takes about 3 ~ 6 months time. There is a container called composting vessel; which is a perforated box containing fermentative bacteria in it. In this method, wide land is not needed and composting can be realized sanitarily in a short time. With a composting vessel of 50 ~ 60 litter capacity , raw garbage generated from one household could be processed. As a vessel, there are several types that can be used for this method; a plastic vessel with many pores covered, of which outside is attached with a carpet or a carton with good ventilation to prevent leakage of the
8. 2.3. Assessment on Impact of Recycling to Environment Most of people do not separate their waste for discharge and collection. Although a part of them has made separated discharge, infrastructures such as separated TPS and separated transporter have not been developed yet; as the result of it, there is no consistency and stability in the separated collection of waste. Most places for recycling wastes in junkshop are not environmental friendly . Most of them just dump the wastes on the ground without water resistant layer foundation and cover to protect them from wind and rain. In the separation process, many junkshops often dump the useless wastes and then burn them. Frequently , chopping and dismantling recycle wastes is made with no consideration if it contains hazardous material; as the result, it has potential impact to the environment and besides it, it gets to be a threat to the workers' health in the junkshop. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 5 contents in the vessel, a vessel made of wood, a vessel made of ceramic and the like. In each case, the important thing is air permeability . Fill almo st half of the vess el with comp ost (ful ly ripe ned) or rice bran (by a ddin g the mixt ure t he fe rmen tati ve ba cter ia us ed fo r the loca lly prod uced ferm enta tive food or the ferm enta tive food itse lf, in whic h the bact eria l have stil l aliv e, ferm enta tion is acce lera ted) ; then , mix the raw garb age chop ped as smal l as poss ible into the ferm enta tive bact eria base (in the vess el) ever yday . On the top of the vess el must be cove red with a clot h of good vent ilat ion to prev ent inva sion of inse cts; the vess el must be kept indo ors or unde r the eave s to avoi d infi ltra tion of rain wate r . Mois ture is anot her impo rtan t elem ent. The prop er mois ture is; when you gras p the comp ost, no wate r drip s (not too much wet) and when you unli nk hand , hand prin t is left ther e (not too much drie d). When it seem s too wet, it must be adju sted by putt ing chaf f or sawd ust. In 3~4 mont hs time , the vess el will get full ; then , take out almo st half of the cont ents and keep it in anot her vess el or in a bag for abou t 2 week s ~ 1 mont h time to make the comp ost full y ripe . The rema inde r in the vess el can be used as the ferm enta tive bact eria . Source: Data from Kita-Kyushu City , Japan
11. 3.2. Se e For reference, this chapter shows some models regarding to methods on separated discharge of waste, such as : Model 1 : Separating one or more inorganic wastes at the household or the commercial place. This model focuses on separation of inorganic wastes such as PET bottle, other plastics, ferrous metal and paper . It is considered these separated wastes are delivered to an existing recycle factory; so, it might become the key point whether any proper recycle factory exists. This model is simple to work out; that is, just prepare a bag or a container to collect the waste. City/district government needs to introduce clearly how to do the separated discharge. Model 2 : Separating food organic wastes for compost at the household or the commercial place. This model focuses on separation of food organic wastes to be collected in a container and delivery of them to the composting process (factory) or composting at household. The important thing is that we need to provide a closed-type container to collect the food organic wastes so as to prevent invasion of insects and others. It needs frequent delivery because food organic wastes decompose very quickly . Because of it, if we need fresh raw material for the compost, regularity in collection interval is needed. City/district government need to introduce which kind of organic waste should be separated for making compost and how to separate. It must be kept in parated Discharge Method Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 8 Box 3 Makassar Case Study The Lurah, the lowest leader in the government structure, who is responsible in leading Kelurahan (bellow Head of Sub-district), formulates the method; and then, deliver it to inhabitant through public education such as training of the trainer , village meeting, simple publication, technical assistance; Lurah was empowered to control most of the activities directly . Besides having developed separated discharge method and deliver it to its special purpose including composting, Lurah also encouraged to keep Kelurahan clean and green through using the compost for parks and yards.
9. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 6 3. Practical Separation of W astes 3.1 Point of Separated Discharge Separated discharge of waste is worked out in the ef fort to minimize waste burden in the total solid waste management. It means if we like to develop integrated solid waste management, we have to design it as integrated system, where we will manage solid waste from the upstream (source of waste) to the downstream (TP A and others solid waste treatment). Most of the plastic recycle factories have not worked out yet environmental impact management and monitoring; at least, in some paper and metal factories, even though they have environmental impact assessment study and have waste treatment/processing, actually , they are not consistent in working out it as sustainable program. In the case of a plastic recycle factory , most of the owners do not understand if their waste (solid, gas, liquid) has an environmental problem. Especially , the thermal-forming machine often emits gaseous waste, to which the workers are exposed. The waste, which is discharged from the process of paper recycle, often causes bad smell and the liquid waste. And metal smelter often disturbs quality of air and noise. Knowledge about separate discharge of domestic waste Y es; 47; 36% No; 68; 52% No Answer; 15; 12% n = 130 Separating discharge in household Y es; 25; 19% No; 100; 77% No answer; 5; 4% n = 130 Source : Interview at Batam, Bogor , Magelang, Makassar , Pontianak City , MoE and JICA, 2007
5. 2. Present Condition of Recycle Networking 2.1. Recycle route Recycled wastes are collected from source of waste such as residential, commercial areas, T emporary Disposal Site (TPS), and TP A. Most of the recycled wastes are collected by a waste picker; then, the waste picker sells them to a junkshop. The junkshop sorts and classifies them into many items depending on the types; then, it sells them to the recycle factory directly or to the bigger junkshop (agent). A part of such wastes is processed (recycled) in the city , but most of them are delivered to others cities or exported to abroad. T echnically , the solid wastes are delivered from its sources (housing area, industrial area and market) by people to TPS or to the waste transporter (truck). In some cities, just a few numbers of sources of waste are delivered their waste to TPS. Most of the households do not separate the waste for discharge and collection of their waste at the sources. Figure 1 : Model Diagram of W aste Recycle Networking Household & Commercial Area T emporary Disposal Site (TPS) Final Disposal Site (TP A) W aste Picker Junkshop Agent Foreign Market Source of W aste Collecting, Sorting and Classifying Processing Domestic Market Recycle Factory Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 2
13. SEP ARA TE DISCHARGE TPS With dif ference provision of container SEP ARA TE COLLECTION With dif ference provision of transporter SEP ARA TED Inorganic W ASTE FOR RECYCLING INDUSTR Y RECYCLING INDUSTR Y SEP ARA TED ORGANIC W ASTE For composting etc. RECYCLE GOODS Indirect Direct Figure 3 : Perspective of Integrated W aste Management 3.3. Marketing of Compost Fertilize r T o develop reliable compost, food organic waste should be separated for discharge at discharged place such as in the household, commercial area or factory of food products; then, separated organic wastes must be prevented from contamination by toxic or extraneous materials. T o enhance the value of compost, it is important to ferment it fully by securing proper aerobic respiration, humid, temperature and duration. People use their compost for themselves and, so far , it is not easy to find out the practical way to market the compost to increase its demand. T o secure stable demand, it is important to make good cooperation between producer of compost and consumer (farmers, park managers, etc.) by exchanging information and requesting each other . 3.4. Point of Separated Collection Basic points of view for separated collection are as follows : (1) City/district government should formulate a plan for ef ficient collection method where the collectors are able to collect the separated discharge of waste without excessive burden. Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 10
6. Box 1 : The recycling network about waste generated from 5 cities (Batam City , Bogor City , Magelang City , Makassar City , Pontianak City) In the PET bottle and other plastic recycle factory , it is chopped into fine flake or mould by thermoforming to the pellet; then, the pellets are processed to a finished (plastic wares) product. Part of the chopped flakes or thermoformed pellets are exported to abroad such as Singapore, T aiwan, China, Malaysia, and Philippines; but majority of them seem to be used as raw material in the local plastic industry . For the purpose of recycling paper , paper wastes are sent to Jakarta (from Batam, Pontianak, and Bogor), and to Surabaya (from Batam, Magelang, and Makassar); besides, a part of the paper wastes from Makassar is exported to V ietnam and those from Batam is exported to Singapore. Besides those sent to Surabaya, the paper wastes from Magelang are sent to Paper Factory in Magelang. Though we know there are paper wastes that are exported to abroad, majority of them seem to be applied for domestic consumption as raw material for recycled paper . Scrap/dismantled iron and ferrous metal from Batam and Pontianak is sent to Medan and Jakarta. Meanwhile, scrap/dismantled iron from Makassar and Magelang is sent to Surabaya. Although there are used iron/metal that are exported to abroad such as China and T aiwan, most of them seem to be consumed in the domestic iron & steel industry . Legend: Plastic W aste Route Metal W aste Route Paper W aste Route VIETNAM SINGAPURA MALA YSIA MAGELANG SURABAYA MAKASSAR PONTIANAK BOGOR E x p o r t t o C h i n a , T a i w a n E x p o r t t o C h i n a , T a i w a n PHILIPINE Location of Study Destination of Re cycle W aste Legend: Plastic W aste Route Metal W aste Route Paper W aste Route VIETNAM SINGAPURA MALA YSIA MAGELANG SURABAYA MAKASSAR PONTIANAK BOGOR E x p o r t t o C h i n a , T a i w a n E x p o r t t o C h i n a , T a i w a n PHILIPINE Location of Study Destination of Re cycle W aste a b r o a d a b r o a d Figure 2 : Map of Recycle W aste Route Practical Guidance for W aste Separation 3
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