Documentation / Jurnal

Share on Social Networks

Share Link

Use permanent link to share in social media

Share with a friend

Please login to send this document by email!

Embed in your website

Select page to start with

Post comment with email address (confirmation of email is required in order to publish comment on website) or please login to post comment

7. ISSUE II: REDUCTI O N OF BARRIER S T O THE INTERNA TIONAL FL OW As global econom i c growth and free trade advan ce, the volu m e of the interna tiona l f l ow of goods, products and technologies has been expanding very dr am atically . In the Asian region, there has been a sharp increase in dema nds for recyclable resources shipped fro m developed countries. On the other hand, el ectronic appliances have rapidly becom e popular in d e veloping countries, m o st of which cause dif f iculties in dis posal. The Basel Convention already h a s created a global m a nagem e nt system for hazardous wastes, however , illegal exports/im ports of recyclab le resources and cases of environm ental pollution caused by transboundary move m e nt s has still been a growing concern. In order to prom ote the establishm ent of a sound m a terial-cycle society internationally , it is necessa ry to reduce ba rr iers to the interna ti onal flow of goods and m a terials for recycling and rem a nufacturing, recycled and rem a nufact ured products, and cleaner , m o re e f ficient technologies, consistent with existing environm ental and trade obligations and fram e w orks. International distribution of those goods/pr oducts and technologies could contribute to ef ficient use of resources and to prevention of environm ental pollution associated with de novo extraction and transportation of pri m ary resources and production of m a terials and products. Furtherm ore, the benefit is lar g e not only from environm ental aspects but also from econom ic aspects. For example, re m a nufacturing businesses, which have been expanding their activities internationally , rem a nufacture goods equivalent to new ones from used products, providing their rem a nufactured pr oducts at reasonable prices to second-hand m a rket. A num b er of multinationa l com p anies al so utilize this ne twork to take ba c k their own products, rem a nufacture them and reuse th em on a global basis. Those activities contribute greatly to job creation, ef ficient us e of natural resources and conservation of the environm ent. However , th ere a r e som e barr ier s to trade in the inte rnational dis t r i b u tion of 3R-related goods and m a terials, products and cleaner , more ef ficient technologies. In fact, som e countries are subject to dif f erentiated treatm ent in tarif f s during th e importation of those goods and m a terials, products and cleaner technologies. Recogni zing that there are various reasons behind this, there is an understa nding intern ationally that it is necessary to reduce such dif f erentiated treatm ent as m u ch as possible and to e lim inate it, if approp riate, and m u ltilateral and b ila tera l f r am eworks have ta ken up vario u s ef f o rts in this a r ea. W ith respect to the reduction of barriers to environm ental goods and services, in 2001, the WT O Doha Ministerial Conference agreed to conduct negotiations on the reduction or elim ination, as appropriate, of tarif f a nd non-tarif f barriers. Currently the WT O Comm ittee on T r ade and Environment is work ing on developing a list of environm ental goods, and it is expected that prom otion of these actions undertaken th rou gh the W T O will result in th e realizatio n of the early redu ct ion of barriers to the international flow . Moreover , bilatera l ef forts con t r i b u ting to the prom otion of the 3Rs have also been launched under the fram e w ork of free trade agreem ents, which aim at promotion of bilateral trad e liberalization, and further acce leration of this approach is d e sirab l e. W ith respect to th e in te rnation a l d i s t ribu tion of waste, em phasis shou ld be place d on the funda m e ntal idea of m i nim i zation in the country in which the waste is generated. T o this end, m a xi mum e f forts should be m a de for th e reduction of waste generated and the prom otion of reuse and recycling in each co untry . Thu s preparatio n of a system for 5

9. ISSUE III: COOPE R A T ION BETW EEN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNT RIES As a result of progress in the global econo my , developing countries are also rapidly transform i ng into consum er societies centere d around m a jor cities. As incom e levels increase, an expansion in volum e and a diversif ication of the type of wa s t e s ge ner a t e d i n daily life, such as the increased ratio of wast e containers and packaging in the total amount of waste, ha s been takin g place in these cities, ju st as it h a s in develop e d countries. There are coun tries where reu s e and recy cling are cu rre ntly carried out by the inform al sector . Meanwhile, issues are arising such as ensuring sound m eans for the collection, transportation and disposal of wastes. Ea rly developm e n t of a sound m a terial-cycle society is important in the m e dium and l ong term for ensuring environm ental protection and econom i c growth. Also, ef forts toward s establishm ent of a sound m a terial-cycle society are useful in improving ot he r ar e a s of sus t a i na bl e de velopm ent, including poverty reduction, access to safe water and sanitation. However , policy prio rities in developing countries still tend to lean towards those de velopm ent projects that will produce poverty reduction or sustainable gr owth in th e short term . The JPoI calls for financial and technical suppor t to be provided to developing countries in order to accelerate their sh ift towards m o re sustainabl e production and consumption patte rns. T o achieve this goal, in terna tiona l or ganizations and institutions have been prom oting various projects in developing count ries, including ef forts to prom ote the 3Rs. For exam ple, under the UNIDO/UNEP Program for National Cleaner Production Centres being im plem ented by UNEP and UNIDO, the es tablishm e n t of cleaner production centers and preparation of databases in developing c ountries is now underw ay . In addition, UNEP has been pr om oting the Lif ecycle I n itia tive (a im ed at the developm ent and dif f usion of tools for assessing opportunities, risks and tradeo f f s associated with pr oducts and services) and the Sustainab l e Consum ption and Production Programme (facilitating inform ation provision, training im plem entation and network building ) . Furthermore, as activities relevant to the Basel Convention, som e partne rship projects, including the developm ent of an environm entally friendly m a na gem e nt mech anism f o r used lead-c ell batter ies and the Mobile Phone Partnership Initia tive, are being carried ou t. The creation and appropriate im plem entation of system s for establishing a sound m a terial cycle-society constitute the basis for rea lizing sustainable produc tion and consumption patterns. Developing countries need to enhance ef forts to develop system s for im ple m enting the sorting and collecting of do m e stically-g enerated waste, im plementin g reuse and recycling and undertaking appropriate treatm ent of residues, and it is key to prom ote cooperation among various stakeholders , including governm e nts, private sector entities, NGOs, local communities and academ i c s. In this regard, developing countries should system atically prom ote i m plem entatio n of various m easures suitable for their national conditions in cooperati on with the international comm uni ty , clarifying their position s for developin g a sound m a terial-cycle society in their national policy agenda through the for m ulation of na tional plans and strategies. Great attention should be given to the following: i) 3R-related policies and institutions While som e developing countries are prom oting system s for addressing the 3Rs, in alm o st 7

5. ISSUE I: NA TIONAL POLICIES T O IMPLEMENT THE 3Rs Expansion of econom i c activities and continued growth in population has stim ulated higher consum ption of resources globally. Im pr ovem ent in the efficiency level through technological developm e n ts and structural ch anges in the econom y has been offset by an even higher increase in absolute produc tion levels throughout the world, and the environm ental pressu re posed by the utilization of resources is even greater. It is forecas t that th e volum e of landfilled wastes and th e amount of hazardous wastes generated will continue to increase until 2020 in most OECD countries . Decoupling of environm ental degradation from population growth and economic developm ent is needed to bring down environm ental pressures regarding resour ce utiliz ation to su stainable levels. In OECD c ountries, efforts for the prom otion of the 3Rs ha ve been strengthened since the late 1980s as a result of the increased rec ognition of waste m i nim i zation. In 1990s, the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) was introduced. EPR refers to the thinking that producers bear a cer tain respons ibility for the prope r recycling or disp osal o f the products they m a nufacture even after those products are used and are discarded. Through the dissem i nation of EPR, business entitie s have been induced to take a life cycle assessm ent (LCA) based approach to their pr oducts in order to m i ni mize environm ental im pacts through the entire life stage of a produc t, not only in productio n and use but also in recycling and disposal. Activities c ontribu ting to the pr om otion of the 3Rs can be clas sified into four types of policy approaches such as i) developm ent of system s for integrating environm ental considerations into socio-econom ic activi ties (e.g., fram e w ork instrum e nts, direct regulatory instrum e nts, econom ic instrum e nt s, voluntary instrum e nts, informational instrum e nts, procedural instrum e nts), ii) suppor t f o r 3R-related activitie s, iii) environm enta l education and iv) science and technology . V a r i ous 3R-re la ted activitie s have been carried out on a national, regional and global basis, by taking into consideration their own characteristics and conditions. T o prom ote the 3Rs, it is necessary to advance a broad range of activities in order to cover both the entirety of the operations necessary to create a produ ct and its life stages, tak i ng a “cradle to cradle” v i ewpoint. Thu s , it is de sirable to formulate comprehensive visions and/or plans for establishing a sound m a terial -cycle society through the participation of various stakeholders and to de velop approaches based on thos e visions and plans. Care should always be taken with rega rd to the fact that the promotion of the 3Rs aim s at the developm ent of sustainable cons um ption and production patterns. It is im portant to incorporate preparedness sy stem atically into m easures to tr eat waste s generated during a lar g e-scale disaster . Local governm e nts must m a ke coordinated ef forts with neighboring local governm e nts in im ple m enting m easures before a disaster , such as stipulation of waste treatm ent plans for a di saster . In addition, central governm e nts m u s t support developm ent of a cross-jurisdictional c ooperative system . Als o it is im por tant to m a ke an international cooperation among countries. V i sions and plans for the prom otion of the 3R s need to in corporate the following items an d viewpoints: 3

13. ISSUE V : PROMOTION OF SCIENC E AND TE CHNOLOGY SUIT AB LE FOR THE 3Rs Scientific and technolog ical developm ents have brought about the m ode rn m a terial society . As represented by home electri cal appliances and autom o b iles, science and technology have provided m a jor impacts on all aspects of life, i m proving convenience and a m enity a s well as providing m a terialistic sati sfaction. At the beginning of the 20 th centu ry , m a ss production through conveyor belt assem b ly lines in the autom obile industry improved production ef ficiency , supplying lar g e quantities of products at low prices. Subsequently , this technique of production wa s introduced to othe r industries, thereby enabling ordinary people to acquire products that had hitherto been reserved for a few persons of wealth. Mass production and m a ss consumption inevitably generated m a ss waste, and the introduction of newer models spurred by rapi d technical developm en ts has encouraged repurchasing of products and contributed to the m a ss disposal of usable products. In the 21 st century , the prom otion of research and technical developm ent aim e d at reducing environm ental im pacts in all processes from the extraction of resources through production, distribution, consum pti on and disposal is now called for . Progress has been made in developing and applying LCA t echniques in order to assess environm ental im pacts across all stages of a product’ s life. New technologi es and system s that will contribute to the prom otion of the 3Rs have been proposed through the developm ent and application of state-of-the-art sciences such as nano- technology and biotechnology . Revision of m a nufacturing processes by u tilizing these technologies and system s leads not only to reductions in the cost of treatm e nt of indus trial wastes but also im provem e nts in the extraction rate and reductions of raw m a terial us age, enab ling im prove m e nts in prof it-ea rnin g ratio s f o r businesse s. Rather than undertaking rem e dial m easures after environm ental pollution occurs, science and technology suitable for the 3Rs, having ou tstanding ef fectiveness in im proving the environm ent from the perspective of LCA, need to en able society as a whole to take a system atic approach and thereby m a ke possi ble the prevention of problem s be fore they occur . Science and technology suitable for th e 3Rs not only contri bute to environm ental conservation, but also create new econom i c adde d value to bring out latent dem a nd in the society and prom ote increased sophisticati on of the overall industrial structure. Prom otion of science and technology suitab le for the 3Rs requires accum ulation of knowledge covering a wide and diverse field, from natural sciences th rou gh the hum a nities and social science. In particular , ef fort s should be made to promote research and technological developm ent in such fields and is sues as i) research on local cyclical systems in order to bring about sound m a terial cycles in local areas, ii) research concerning the cyclic al m a teria l f l ow to assess whether and h o w well the actual m a teria l f l ow is being transform e d into a cyclical flow , iii) deve lopm ent of 3R clean technologies and iv) technological developm ent for 3R designing. In order to prom ote 3R m easures at the gl obal level, it is necessary for technological developm ent and research to be advanced c ooperatively , incorporati ng mutual inform ation sharing. F o r exam ple, m e thods for analyzing m a terial flow have already begun to be addressed through interna tional joint research, with the OE CD serving in a central role. 11

11. ISSUE IV : COOPERA T ION AM ONG ST AKEHOLDERS It is essential that stakeholders, includi ng the central governm e nt, local governm e nts, private sector entities, NGOs, and local co mmunities establish coope rative relations and prom ote the 3Rs throughout all of society . Th e funda m e nt al roles of each stakeholder are as f o llows. As for the c e ntral governm e nt , in addition to undertaking f undam e ntal preparations, such as preparing the legal fram e work and other institutional system s, inducing the private sector throu gh subsidie s and tax in centive s to construc t re cycling f a cilities, prov iding support for research and development, and providing citizens and NGOs with support and re levan t inf o rm ation to f o ste r volun tary activities, it also se ts th e pac e by im ple m enting its own measures, thus enhanc ing partnership a m ong various stakeholders and prom oting 3R-related m easures at the national level. Local gov ernm ents have a role to play as local coordinators, ensuring en f o rc em ent of laws and regu lation s r e la ted to the 3Rs and prom oting actions suita b le f o r loca l condition s , including th e stipu l ation of specific action plans, prom otion of green pr ocurem ent, awareness raising, inform at ion disclosu re, ensuring pa rtic ipation b y loca l com m unities in decis i on-m a king pro c e sses regarding relevant policies, and developm ent of hubs for recycling businesses. The central governm ent and local governm ents also have the role of leading m a rkets in desirable directions through economic m easures such as the introduction of char ges for garbage co llection and the colle ctio n of landf ill taxes. The private secto r has the role of prom o ting the 3Rs by im ple m enting environm entally-sound operations to develop and supply environm entally sound products and services, developing tec hnologies and providing them to the m a rket, taking back a certain am ount of waste, reusing used m a teri als in new products or reusing m a terials as raw m a terials or fuels in keeping with EPR, and ensuring sound waste m a nagem e nt. Also, in keeping with the concept of corporate so cial responsibility (C SR), private sector entities can be expected to ta ke on the tasks of developi ng and prom oting environm ental m a nage m e nt system s as well as disclo sing infor m ation on the 3Rs, to prom ote environm ental m a nage ment system s, and to provide information on raw m a terials and recycling m e thods so that consum ers ar e able to choose products with lower environm ental im pact. Local com m unities should play a role by actively par ticipating and cooperating in 3R activities by reviewing thei r lifestyles, purchasing envi ronm entally-sound products and im ple m enting thorough sorting of wastes, bein g aware of their own responsibilities as waste generators. Co mmunities also should ta ke an activ e part in the decision -making processes concerning 3R prom otion conduc ted by central and local governments. Meanwhile, NGOs are responsib le for prom oting environ m ental conservation activitie s on a local basis and improving awareness co ncerning both the sign if ica n ce of the 3Rs and concrete actions, as well as for m on itoring the progress of gove rnm e nts and the private sector and recom m e nding pol icy options. A num b er of stakeholders are involved in the various stages of resource recycling, ranging from extraction of resources to m a nufacturing and use of products, r ecycling and disposal of used goods. Cooperation am ong various st akeholders is necessary to reduce the volum e and the hazardo usness of wastes in each stage of the product’ s life. Im provem ent 9

14. In order to im prove mutual understanding and ensure cooperation among stakeholders towards the prom otion of the 3Rs, inform ation sharing regarding 3R activities and communication am ong governm e nts, the priv ate s ecto r and local communities are crucial. As one of the funda m e ntal aspects, it is im porta nt to provide, in ways that are accessible, easy to understand, and shared in common a m ong stakeholders, inform ation that can assist stakeholders in reaching decisions w ith rega rd to science and tec hnology (e.g., the current status of the research or technology , the results of th e science or technology , its ef fectiveness in im proving the environm ent, cost ef ficiency when reflecting it in governm e nt policies, or feasibil ity with regard to societal system s). Furtherm ore, local universities and research inst itutes conducting research and de velopment in collaboration with local industries, local govern m e nts a nd communities is ef fective for intro ducing technolog ies to prom ote the 3Rs in a m a nner that is rooted in communities. QUESTIONS 1. How do you assess the potential for science and technology to pr omote the establishment of sound material-cycle society thr ough advancem ent of the 3Rs? 2. What actions have been taken in or der to pr om ote science and tec hnology suitable for the 3Rs? What actions should be taken for further pr omotion? 3. It is desirable to further pr omote interna tional r e sear ch cooperation (e.g., information exchange, exchange of r e sear chers, joint r e se ar ch) in or der to pr omote science and technology . What kind of specific a ppr oaches should be taken for this? 12

8. separate co llection and recycling is n ecessa ry . This is p a rticular ly im portant in the c a se of hazardous wastes. So und m a nagem e nt of wa stes th at result even after m i ni m i zation of waste generation is required within the country of origin; however , in cases in which sound reuse o r recycling is p r acticed outs i de th e cou n try , the international flow of those wastes can be p e r m itted f r om the v i ewpo int of ef f ective use of r e sources an d the avoid a nce of environm ental pollution that would be cau sed by the extraction and transportation of addition a l p r im ary reso urces or by the m a nufactur ing of m a teria l s. Needless to say , prevention of environmental pollution m u st be a prerequis ite to in tern ationa l reus e and recycling, and it is necessary for both exporting and im porting countries to strive jointly to prevent the creation of envir onm ental pollution from transboundary m o vem e nts of wastes. Except for special cases, including exports of wastes from countri es that do not have suf f icient environm entally-sound technologies or facilities for recycling to countries that have them , recycling should be based m a in ly on utilization of dom estically-g enerated recyclable resources. In orde r to ensure tha t an interna t ional fl ow o f recyclab le reso urces be based on proper environm ental m a nage ment in the future, it wo uld be crucially im portant to m a ke ef forts for i) securing of proper utiliza tion and disposal of im ported r ecyclable resources, ii) data collection concerning th e transboundary m ove ment, utilizati on and treatm ent of rec y clable resources, iii) strengthening of m a nagem e nt system s concerning transboundary m ove m e nt of recyclable resources, iv) suf f icient in form a tion exchange and inform ation sharing concerning each coun try’ s transbou ndary m ovem e nt contro l sys t em s and v) awareness raising am ong operators involved in the transb oundary m o vem e nt of re cyclable resources. In this rega r d, applica tio n of a region -w ide appro ach will y i eld ef f ective results. QUESTIONS 1. What kinds of social system(s) s hould be established for ensuring the ef fective utilization o f r e sour c e s with the p r e venti on of envir onmental po llu tion r e sulting fr o m the international flow of goods and pr oducts? 2. It is becoming important to pr omote strategically actions towar d s sound material-cycle society o n the r e g i on al level . What ef forts ar e being taken to achieve this? 3. What kinds of appr oaches ar e r e quir e d to pr omote in or de r to r e duce barriers to the interna tiona l flow of r e c yclable r e so ur ces? 6

12. of awareness and developm ent of partnershi p am ong stakeholders is a key issue for the prom otion of the 3Rs. Building pu blic-p riva te partnership is particularly im porta nt. Local public entities can be expected to take on the role of local coordina tors under the leadership of local governors in order to pro m ote 3R activities that a r e roo t ed in local communitie s. For the p r om otion of the 3Rs concerning products di strib u ted in the intern ation a l m a rkets, th e developm ent of partnerships between ex porting and im porting c ountries is n ecessary . While refurbishers and repairers play im por tant roles in term s of reuse and recycling, and further developm ent of their activitie s is exp ected, how to apply the concept of E P R to these new stakeho l ders is an issue which needs f u rther consideration. In prom oting cooperation am ong di f f erent stakeholders, it is im portant to identify appr opriate cost burdens after considering the environm ental benefits and econom i c cost s of operating recycling system s. The introduction of LCA and other asse ssm e nt m e thods is desirable. Linkage among dif f erent sectors would enab le expanded provis i on of opportunities to reduce waste through having waste products from one company used as raw m a terials for another . W i n-win relations can be reali zed by establishing linkages between dif f erent sectors, with waste disch a r g er s reducing treatm e nt costs while users of recyclable reso urces reduce both procurem ent costs for raw m a terials and environm ental i m pa cts. Furtherm ore, as part of the Eco-T o wn Proj ect in Japan, ef forts are underw ay to develop hubs to enable recycling of variou s wastes in ter m s of quantity and qu ality and to reuse stab ly and ef fectively waste p r odu cts and exh a ust h eat ge nerated f r o m certain b u siness ca te gories as raw m a terials and ener gy source s in other key industries. It is also beneficial to proactively prom ote linkage am ong dif f erent se ctors in term s of creating new industries and enhanced employm e nt opportunities. Inform ation sharing among stakeholders regard ing products is critically im portant for prom otion of the 3Rs with linkage among shareholders. F o r exam ple, products designed to facilitate recy cling should h a ve su ch inform ation conveyed accurately from m a nufacturers to consu m ers and t o recycling businesses and waste treatm e nt entities. W ith respect to globally-distributed products w ith environm ent-polluting potential, such as mobile phones or com puters, inform ation on those products should be shared between exporting and im porting countries to ensure environm entally-sound recycling and disposal, paying due attention to protection of intellectual property rights. QUESTIONS 1. In which o f the in ter - sta kehol der actions listed above is th e further str e n g thening o f the partnership among stakeholders for estab lishing a sound material society thr o ugh implementin g the 3Rs? 2. What obstacles exist for build ing partnerships among stakehol ders? What ar e the keys to succes s? 3. What ar e the best appr oaches in the inter national setting for sharing good practices to pr omote partnerships? 10

10. all developing countries, legal system s regard ing the 3Rs have yet to be established. Insuf f icient institutional capability to s upport 3R m easures is a common issue for all developing countries to address. It is particularly im porta nt to train persons in local governm e nts and strengthen their capacity . If reuse and recycling are being carried out by the poor as part of the infor m al sector , utiliz ation of that sector needs to be studied as appropriate, keeping in m i nd the i m pacts on the lives of the poor . ii) 3R te chn o logy , syste m s and f acilitie s The recycling or proper treatm ent of kitchen wa ste, wastepaper , and waste plas tics is an issue common to developing countries, yet the necessary technological hum a n resources or system s are not suf f iciently estab l ished. Caution should be given to the needs of developing countries that re flect their national conditi ons in the introduction and dissem i nation of waste m a nagem e nt and recy cling technologies. More sophisticated recycling and treatm ent technology for used electrical and electron ic equipm ent, clean technologies for reducing waste generation and th e prom otion of the us e of environmentally sound products are future i ssues to be addressed. iii) A w areness of the 3Rs Production and consumption are the prim e concer ns of people in developing countries and awareness of citizens, corporat ions and governm e nts is still low towards waste issues. In order to establish waste sorting and collec tion system s, cooperation am ong all relevant parties is es sential, and it is neces sary to e nhance comm on awareness of the issues as well as enhance recogn itio n of the importance of actions through the im ple m entation of environm ental education and the dissem i nati on of inform ation regarding successful inter - stakeholder (e.g., local governm e nts) partnerships. iv) Sound material-cycle business Even though the developing countries have a co st advantage in the resource recycling business, som e of the m do not have suf f ic ient capability from technological or legal standpoints to address the issue. In som e cases, business entities do not have suf f icient awareness with regard to com p liance with environm ental regulations, leading to dam a ge to hum a n health or environm ental pollution during the collecting and reprocessing of recyclable resources. Establishm e n t of environm entally-sound m a nagem e nt system s by the entities in char ge of r ecycling businesses is necessary . QUESTIONS 1. Which of the ar eas indicated as i) to iv) above needs interna tional ef forts most in terms of the global pr omotion of a sound mate rial-cycle society thr ough pr omotion of the 3Rs? 2. What ar e the r o les to be fulfilled by the d eveloped co untries and interna tion a l or ganiza tion s /ins titu tions in solving the i ssu es faced by developing co untries? Wh at kind of support for capac ity bu ilding is importan t ? 3. What kinds of measur es ar e needed in or der to r a ise the pr io rity level o f the cr ea tion of a sound material-cycle society in the f undamental national po licies of developing countries? 8

4. Background to the Launch of the 3R Initiative The 3R Initiative was en dorsed at th e G8 Summit held in Ju ne 2004 at Sea Island. It was decided to o f f i cially lau n ch the 3R Initiative at a m i nisterial m eeti ng to be hosted by the Governm e nt of Japan within a year f r om th e summ it, with the purpose of the Initiative being to dissem inate 3R activities on a global basis. The m a terial ization of efforts and direc tions n ecessa ry f o r the inte rnational prom otion of the 3Rs is expected to substantially contribute to the G8 Summ it Meeting in 2005, to be hosted by the United Kingdom . Objectives of th e 3R Initiative The 3R Act i on Plan set forth the following five points to be pursued through the 3R Initiative: 1) T o reduce waste, reuse and recycle resources and products to the extent econom ically feasible; 2) T o reduce barriers to the international flow of goods and m a terials for recycling and rem a nufacturing, recycled and rem a nufactured products, and cleaner , m o re ef ficient technologies, consistent with existing environm ental and trade obligations and fra m eworks; 3) T o encourage cooperation a m ong va rious st akeholders (central governm e nts, local governm e nts, the private sector , NGOs a nd communities), including voluntary and m a rket-based activ ities; 4) T o prom ote science and technol ogy suitable for the 3Rs; and 5) T o cooperate with developing countries in such areas as capacity building, raising public awareness, hum an resource devel opm ent and im plem entation of recycling projects. 2

2. T a ble of Contents Introductio n 1 Issue I: National Policies to Im plement the 3Rs 3 Issue II: Reduction of Barriers to the International Flow 5 Issue III: Cooperation between De v e loped and D e veloping Countries 7 Issue IV : Cooperation am ong S t akeholders 9 Issue V : Prom otion of Science and T echnolog y Su itable for the 3Rs 11 1

15. Ministry of the Environm ent 13

1. 0 MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE ON THE 3R INITIA TIVE April 28 – 30, 2005 T o k y o, Jap an ISSUES P A PER Ministry of the Envir o nment Government of Japan

6. i) System s for reviewing ef forts - Establishm ent of a PDCA cycle, referri ng to for m ulation (Plan), execution (D o), inspection and assessm ent (Ch eck) and review (Action) - Setting specific tar g ets in individual categorie s and others which assist in understanding overall trends regarding the connection be tween econom ic a c tivities and the m a terial flow towards recycling or disposal ii) Identif i ca tion of the roles of stakeholders - A w areness o f the distin ct ro les of various stakeholders - Activities w h ich are rooted in the responsibi lities of the entities generating the wastes with respect to wastes accom panying industrial activities iii) Expansion of m a rket for products with low environm ental im pact - Ef forts by m a nufacturers such as designing products that facilitate recycling, m a nufacturing products using recyclable resources, and reducing the volum e of hazardous chem ical substances in produc ts in the product m a nufacturing stage - Shif t of the dem a nd to more environm entally-friendly products by actively em bracing green purchasing in the consum ption stage - Securing o f the cond itions nece ssary f o r f a ir com p etition that c ontribu tes to developm ent of 3R-related businesses iv) A w areness raising - Initiative of public agencies and industry in developing partners hips among relevant entities - Prom otion of environm e n tal education that en ab les people to realize the necessity of 3R activ ities v) 3R research and developm ent - Prom otion of research a nd develop m ent aim e d at m itigatin g environmental im pacts in all processes, from extraction of resources to production, distri bution, consum ption, recycling and disposal vi) Inf r as tru c ture f o r 3R -related a c tivitie s - Establishm ent of f acilities to colle c t used prod ucts and f acilitie s f o r process i ng and utilizing rec y clable reso urces QUESTIONS 1. Does your country have any visions of a futur e society wher e integration of the envir onmen t with the economy can be made to war d s the a c hievement of sustainab le pr oduction and consumption patte rns thr ough 3R pr omotion? 2. What r o les has a ten-year fr amew ork of pr ograms as en couraged in the JPoI been playing in pr omoting the 3Rs? 3. What kinds of instruments and appr oaches ar e important for pr omoting the 3Rs? What appr oach is appr opriate to pr omote the global sharing of informati on on 3R activities? 4

3. INTRODUCTION Necessity of Shifting from a Mass Consum ption to a Sound Material-Cycle Society Socio-econo m i c activities expanded in the 20 th century, contributing to greater material prosper ity f o r people. However, this also le d to increas es in the v o lum e of generated waste, difficulty of waste treatment due to diversification of types of waste and environm ental pollution caused by inappropria te waste m a nagem e nt. Moreover, from a global viewpoint, there was growin g concern over the depletion of natural resources, while global env i ronm ental iss u es such as global warm ing becam e more seriou s. These problem s stem fr om m a ss pr oduction, ma ss consumption and mass disposal patterns rooted in the current socio-econom ic system . In order to solve these issues, it is necessary to rethink at a fundam e ntal level the socio-econom i c activi ties which have brought us to this point, not only in developed countries but also in developing countries, which are experiencing a deepening of the degree to which the environm ent and the economy are mutually dependent. The Plan of I m ple m entation (JPoI) adopted at the 2002 W o rld Su mm it on Sustainable Developm ent in Johannesbur g stipulated that all countries should promote sustainable consum ption and production patterns to bring about sustainable developm ent at the global level. The JPoI also encouraged all count ries to develop a ten-year fram e w ork of program s to accelerate the shift towards sust ain a ble consu m ption and production and to take ac tion a t all leve ls. In order to bring about in the 21 st century sustainable developm ent which integrates the environm ent and the econom y , it is necessary to establish a sound m a terial -cycle society , in which consum ption of natural resources is reduced an d environmental im pacts are m i ni m i zed. In both developed and developing c ountries, the key to achieving this lies in the prom otion of the 3Rs (i.e., reduction, reus e and recycling of was t e) in addition to ensuring the sound disposal of waste. Concept of the 3Rs in a S o und Material-Cycle Society unable to be materiall y T r eatm ent (Recycling, incineration, etc.) Pr oduction (Manufacturing, distrib u ti on, etc.) Consumption, Use Discard Input of Natural Resources S t ep 3(a): Material Rec y cling Recy cle thing s that cannot b e reused as r a w material s S t ep 3(b): Re cycling: First: Redu c t i o n Reduce gen e r a t i o n o f wastes and b y p r o d u c t s St e p 1 : R educe Reduce generation of waste and b yproducts St e p 2 : R e u s e Use things repeatedly Energy Reco very Recover ener gy from things recy cled and having n o alternative but incineration by a n y used S t ep 4: Pr oper Disposal Di spose o f t hin gs w hi c h ca nn ot means be Final Disposal 1


  • 17 Total Views
  • 11 Website Views
  • 6 Embeded Views


  • 0 Social Shares
  • 0 Dislikes

Share count

  • 0 Facebook
  • 0 Twitter
  • 0 LinkedIn
  • 0 Google+

Embeds 2

  • 3
  • 1