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2. I. Background h e i s s u e o f 3 R h a s b e c o m e a s i g n i f i c ant polic y a p p r o a c h f o r s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h t h e p r i o r i t i e s p l a c e d o n i t b y t h e W o r l d S u m m i t o n S u s t a i n a b l e D e v e l o p m e n t (WS S D) and one of its key outcome documents – the '10 Year Framework Programme on Sustainab le Consum ption and Production' . Also, Par a 22 of the WSSD J o int Plan of Implementation spec ifically endorses the 3R policy approach as a means to achieve sustainable consumption and production. T The 3R approach, focusing on reduce, reuse, and recycle, essentially aims to set up a sound material cycle society within the concept of a life-cycle economy, where consumption of natural resources is minimized and the environment al load is reduced, as much as possible. A 3R polic y typically calls for an increase in the ratio of recyclable materials, further reusing of raw materials and manufacturing wastes, and overall reduction in resources and ener gy used. T hese ideas are applied to the entire lifecy c les of pr oducts and services – from design and extrac tion of raw materials to transport, manufacture, us e, dismantling/r euse and disposal. Various ac tivities are being planned as a part of the follow-up t o WSSD and t he 10-Year Framework Programme for Sustainable Consum ption an d Production (the ‘Marrakech Process’). Activities such as Sustainable Consumpti on, Cleaner Produ ction, and the Life Cycle Initiative, are at the heart of UNEP' s contribution to the Framework. The G8 developed an initiative on the 3R approach, launched by the Governm ent of Japan. It was endorsed at the G8 S u mmit held in June 2004 at Sea Island, USA. The 3R Initiative calls for the (1) promotion of 3Rs at the nati onal level, (2) reduction of barriers to the international flow of recyclable goods and materials, (3) cooperation among different stakeholders in the public and private s e ctors, (4) promotion of science and technology for 3Rs, and (5) cooperation with devel oping countries. 2

3. As a follow up to the G8 endorsement, the Government of Japan or ganiz ed a 3R Ministerial Conferenc e in Tokyo from 28 to 30 April 2005. The Conferenc e was a st arting poi nt for pursuing globally , a sound material-cycle society through the "3Rs" of reduce, reuse and recycle. Participant s included ministers responsible fo r 3Rs from G8 and other invited countries, and repr esentatives of OECD, UNEP and the Basel Convention Secretariat. UNEP’s Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity-building, aims to strengthen the capacity of governments at all levels and provide systematic, targeted, long and short-term measures for technology suppor t and capacity building. For example, strengthened efforts to include waste prevention into s u stai nable consumption and production strategies of all stakeholders - business, in particular small and mediu m-sized enterprises, civil society (awareness raisi ng and providing recyclin g facilities for household s ) and governments themselves (national and local sustai nable procurement, 'green' and waste-free events and prem ises at international governmental levels) is par t of the ongoing regional consultation process on the regional priorities for the Marrakech process. II. Scope of the Document A s a contribution to the 3R Minis t erial Meeting of April 2005, UNEP launched the “3R Platform” as an implementing mechanism for the 3R initiative in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The platform provides support for concrete 3R activities, such as demonstration projects and institutional strengthening exercises, building on experiences in Japan and other countries, and tailoring them to the needs and specific conditions of each country This document is intended to outline the strategic elements that can guide the activities im plemented under the umbrella of the 3R Platform. It outlines the key areas and themes that need to be focused on in implementing the 3R approach. 3

4. IV. Prerequisites and Barriers to Implementing 3R i t h n a t i o n a l a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m ents, the private sector a n d c i v i l society entities pl ac ing increasing emphasis o n s u s t a i n a b l e d e v elopment , the 3R Approach can b e a n e f f e c t i v e t o o l t o support their efforts towards achiev ing the goals of sustainable development. W A number of factors are crit ical in influencing the effectiveness of the 3R Appr oach. These inc l ude enabling policy framework; education and raising awareness of all conc erned stakeholders; and capacity building and technology support, includin g human resources, tec hnology, finance and other inputs. A critical aspect that cu ts across the above three factors relates to the a cceptance and implementation of the 3R concept and rela ted polic ies by countries and entities adopting the 3R Appr oach. A number of problems exist in f a cilitating the smooth uptake of 3R polic ies and st rategies. Key among them is the gaps in information and practical application of solutions - access to appropriate and useful information, and of transla ting problems faced by industry into research priorities (and vice versa – implementing innov ative research outputs on the ground). Barriers to concrete implementation of 3R polic ies an d strategies also exist, wh ich will hinder broader application. These barriers are related t o policy, information, capacity build ing, financial and socio- cultural iss ues. Ways and means to overcome the barriers will have to be identified, using enabling measures to increase the application of 3R policies and strategies. 4

7. • To provide resources (technology, finance, and market) for facilitating the implement ation of 3R polic ies A UNEP proj ect in Ugand a aims at demonstrating t e chniques and technologies for w a te r conservation and r eduction o f pollution load in w a ste w at er f r om bre w er y industries. • To interact and networ k with other entities undertaking 3R activities, including end- users and consumers, and find new business opportunities UNEP resourc e - ‘Cleaner Production Companion’ pro v ides informatio n to facilitate understanding of w hat differen t stakeholders can do to con t inuously appl y int egrated and preventive environmental strategie s . • To ensure proper implementation of available resource efficient technologies • To develop leading edge technologies and products • To support corporate 'green' trends and commit to a sustainable future For civil society entities , a number of strategic elements will gu ide the i r activities: The UNEP's p r o j ect, 'Y outh x cha n ge' aims to promote sustainable consumption patterns among y oun g consumers all around the w o rld. It has developed ki ts on how t o explain sustainable lifest y les to a y o ung a udience. • To influenc e market trends by making sustainable and green choices in their everyday lives • To support development and implement ation of pol icy framewo r ks by local and national gov ernments • To lead a sustainable lifestyle with minimum ecological f ootprints 7

5. V. Strategic Elements for Future Activities h e s u c c e s s of 3R policies and strategies will largely d e p e n d o n t h e r i g h t mix of policies and programmes i m p l e m e n t ed at the local lev e l. As the Japanese e x p e r i e n c e h a s s h o w n , t h e k e y spheres of action will revolve ar ound governance, education, t e chnology and financ e. T In partnership w i th a number of local partners, UNEP is implementing a plastic w a ste management pr ogramme for t h e city o f Nairobi based on the '3R' pri n ciples. The project prop o s es to establish a comprehensive plastic bag reuse/rec y cle program me thro ugh civil societ y – i ndustr y partnership sup ported b y ke y policy and economic instruments. The main strategic issues that need to be addressed are: 1. Governance issues include policy instruments such as laws, legis l at ion, rules and procedures, and developing an enabling environment where market-based instrument s can also facilit ate uptake of the 3R concept. These issues are primarily the responsibi lity of governments at the national and local levels. 2. Education and awareness building iss ues among all concerned st akeholders, and the need for comprehensive networking among them at the local level. These issues focus on the provision of appr opriate and timely information to decision makers, targe t ing stakeholders in the public and private sectors, but also communities and consumers alike. These issues are primarily the responsibility of universities and research institutions, non- governmental organiz a ti ons, and citizens and community groups. A s a part of the ‘Life-c y cle Initiative’ UNEP has promoted di alogue among g o vernments, industr y entities and consumer o r ganizations to promote dialogue, share information and exchange e x pe riences on ke y l i f e - c y cle issues. A s a part o f th e ‘Life-c y cle I nitiative’ UNEP has promoted di alogue among g o vernments, industr y entities and consumer o r ganizations to share inf o rmation and exchange expe riences on ke y life-c y cle issues. 3. Capac ity building and technology support issues are important to ensure that the appropriate solutions are used in indust r ial, manufacturing and market activities , and technologies used hav e a minimum impact on the environment, produci ng the least amount of wastes possible. T hes e will also include building human res ources, decision-making capacities and structures , and other inputs. These is sues are al so primarily the responsibility of business associations, business intermediary organizations and professional institutions. UNEP has implemented a numbe r of activitie s to develop capacities in cleaner and safe r production at nat ional and re gion al levels. Fo r example, trainin g packages on environmental management for industrial estates, hazardous w a ste m anage ment, CP-ME A integration, Cleaner producti on – energ y eff i ciency etc. have been developed and delivered to a number of Clean er Production Ce ntres . 5

1. Strategic Elements in Implementing the 3R Platform UNEP’s Contribution United Nations Envi ronm ent Programme

6. 4. Financ ial issues will be crit ic al as well, in developing innovative financ ing schemes that promote investment in 3R implementation, easy access to 3R dedicated funds etc. These issues are the responsib ility of banks and financial institutions. With funding from Nor w a y , U N EP implemented a four- y ear p r oject on Cleane r Production Finan cing w h ich aimed at enabling National Cleaner Production Ce ntres in five countries to con v ert technical CP options into bankable propos als. In develop ing a comp rehensive 3R progra mme, it will be important to enable different organizations and institutions (with different kinds of resources and working on different issues), to carry ou t activities within their respective niches, but achieving together common 3R goals of a life-cycle economy. In part nership w i th UN-DESA, UNEP h a s been facilitatin g the Marrake ch Process among national governments to further the objectives of the 10- Y e a r Fr ame w ork on Sustainable Consumption and Production, w h ich em erged as a ke y out come of th e WSSD. Considering the broad nat ure of 3R polic ies an d strategies, the focal areas and activities of different partners will have to be understood. Inter-governmental organi zations, including UN organizations, have a critical cross-cutting and supportive role to play in partnering with a wide range of entities such as gov ernments, business and industry and civil society organiz a tions, to carry out their activities, and at a broader lev e l, to lend credibility to the 3R c oncept by providing accurate and timely information access. Activities im plemented under these responsibilities inc l ude pilots a n d demonstration projects, capac ity building, information sharing and knowledge transfer. The 2002 UNEP Governing Cou n cil review o f international environmental governance identified the need for an interg overnmental strategic plan f o r technolog y support and capacity building to improve the effectiveness of capacity building, and to a ddre ss the gaps identified by assessments of existing activities and needs. The resulting document, the Bali Strategi c Plan , calls for provision o f sy stematic, targ eted, long and short-ter m measures for technol og y support and capacity building. A UNEP project in V i etnam focuses on resource au gmentation b y using environmentall y sound technologies to tap rene w able resou r ces and to utilize w a ste b y rain w a ter harve sting, gre y w a ter reuse and converting organi c w a ste into a re source. For national governments, t he 3R focal areas could be: • To build capacity and commitment through knowledge management • To develop an enabling policy framework to further the 3R concept including economic and market based instruments A UNEP p r oj ect currentl y under w a y in Lesotho calls for the integr ated managemen t of municipal w a stes generated in the capital city , Mase ru. • To satisfy MEA obligations and national/international commitments, as a part of their sustainability efforts • To facilitate and provid e accurate and timely access to information to all stakeholders For business, trade and industr y partners the strategic elements that could guide their commitment and contribution to the 3R concept are: UNEP has w o rked w i th business and industr y entities and local governments in cities in the A sia Pacific region to develop e c o-to w n s in or der to facilitate envir onmentally sound industrial develo p ment, focused on the 3R concept. • To facilitate economic develo p ment by creating markets around 3R polic ies 6

8. For further information, please contact: United Nations Environment Programme International Environmental Technology Center 2-110, Ryokuchi Koen, Tsurumi-ku, Osaka 538-0036, Japan Tel: +81-6-6915-4581 Fax: +81-6-6915-0304 Email: [email protected]


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